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Glossary
Natural Fragrances and Oils From the the Only Source you need to Know

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Absolute:
Alcoholic extraction of a concrete to remove waxes and most odorless materials, producing an alcohol-soluble liquid or semi-liquid oil.

ArispiceTM:
Oleoresin or HydrospiceTM plated on a dry carrier.

Balsam:
Water insoluble, semi-solid or viscous, resinous exudate of trees and bushes similar to gum resins.

Concrete:
Extraction of fresh natural plant materials, usually with non-polar organic solvents (e.g. hexane) which yield, after removal of the solvent by vacuum distillation, a solid or semi-solid wax.

Distillation (Fractional):
A heat-dependent process for separation and purification of a liquid mixture based on differences in vapor pressure of components of the mixture. The process involves vaporization of the more volatile component(s) and then condensation of the vapor back to a liquid.

Essence Oil:
An oil collected in the water distillate during the production and concentration of fruit juices. Upon separation from the water, the remaining oil contains the highly volatile top notes of natural juice.

Expression:
A production method used to obtain citrus oils and fruit juices. The expressed or cold pressed essential oils are obtained from the peels of the fruits. Expression yields essential oils which can contain a certain amount of non-volatile material. Juices are produced by expression of fruit itself, often concentrated.

Extraction:
A process of treating a natural raw material with an organic solvent. The solvent portion containing the extracted material is filtered and the solvent removed. The extract will contain non-volatile as well as volatile components. Oleoresins, resinoids, concretes, and absolutes are all produced by extraction.

Exudate:
Non-cellular, natural raw material that is secreted by plants, either spontaneously or after wounding. Examples - Balsam Peru, Balsam Copaiba, etc.

Fixative:
The material which slows down the rate of evaporation of the more volatile components in a perfume composition.

Folded Oil:
An essential oil which is concentrated by distillation. Example - removal of terpenes from citrus oils.

Gum:
A water soluble exudate consisting mainly of polysaccharides and used principally as a thickener and as a spray-dried carrier in the manufacture of water soluble fragrance and flavor compounds (Gum Arabic, Agar, etc.).

Gum Resin Absolute:
Oil soluble, purified exudate consisting mostly of resinous constituents, gums and small amounts of volatile components (Myrrh, Galbanum, Opoponax).

HydrospiceTM:
Water dispersible form of an oleoresin.

Isolate: Separation of an aroma chemical from an essential oil via distillation (mechanically) or hydrolysis (chemically), or by other partitioning methods. Example - Eugenol ex Clove Leaf.

Natural:
Contains all natural ingredients.

Natural & Artificial:
Contains natural and artificial ingredients.

Nature Identical:
A component, natural or artificial, which has chemical structure identical to that found in nature.

Oleoresin:
Extraction, usually of natural spice or flavoring materials, using selected solvent to remove the vital components. An oleoresin will contain the essential oil plus other important non-volatile components which characterize the flavor, color and other aspects of the starting raw material.

Rectification:
A second distillation of an essential oil to remove color, water, resinous matter and perhaps unwanted top and bottom notes.

Resinoid:
Solid or semi-solid material, prepared from exudates by extraction and purification with a solvent. These products are similar to concretes, except that the starting materials are not previously live, cellular tissue.

Resin:
This group of exudates includes both gums and balsams. They are water insoluble, solid or semi-solid, and formed in nature by the oxidation of terpenes.

Sesquiterpeneless:
Essential oils which have had the sesquiterpenic hydrocarbons partially or completely removed to:
a) improve solubility in diluted alcohol or food grade solvents,
b) improve odor and flavor of the essential oil,
c) lift the overall fragrance and flavor, since sesquiterpenes have a fixative effect.

Terpene:
Fraction of an essential oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons, obtained as a byproduct
from either concentration or distillation of the oil.

Terpeneless:
Complete or partial removal of monoterpenic hydrocarbons by distillation of an essential oil to:
a) improve solubility in diluted alcohol or food grade solvents,
b) increase stability of the oil and prevent the appearance of rancid notes.

Tincture:
An alcoholic extraction with the solvent left in as a diluent.

Water Miscible/Dispersible:
Can be uniformly mixed with water.

Water Soluble:
Can be dissolved in water.

WONF:
An essential oil or flavor with other natural flavors added to enhance specific notes.

 

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Gorlin & Co. Incorporated Your Source for Natural Oils and Fragrances

290 North Grove Street, Merritt Island, Florida 32953

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